Author: drbiveksingh

Insult to liver on long run can cause fibrosis of the liver and formation of nodules ,which is termed as liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis is a chronic condition of the liver in which there is fibrosis and formation of nodules. The normal architecture of the liver gets distorted and patient presents with number of clinical feature.

Causes of Liver cirrhosis include:
1. Infection: Hepatitis B, C, D
2. Toxins: Alcohol
3. Cholestasis
4. Vascular
5. Metabolic
6. Genetic
7. Cryptogenic

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Diuretics forms one of the base pillars in treating hypertension and edema. These groups of drugs increases  rate of urine flow. Based on their mechanism of action their efficacy varies. Before moving into diuretics I would recommend to revise renal physiology which will make it easier to get deeper and clear concept of mechanism of diuretics. In this section I will not go into details of each and every diuretics, I would rather try to provide concept and differentiating feature based on mechanism of action and adverse effects.



Class of diuretics Example
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAI) WEAK Acetazolamide
Osmotic diuretics WEAK Mannitol
Loop diuretics HIGH Furosemide
Thiazide MEDIUM Hydrochlorothiazide
Potassium sparring diuretics WEAK

Amiloride (Sodium channel inhibitors)

Spironolactone (Aldosterone receptor antagonist)

Lets revise different section of nephron, (see the figure)

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There are different hormones related to gastrointestinal system which plays important role in digestion of the food. These hormones are related to each other and in different pathological condition, their production may increase or decrease leading to derangement of digestive process. Some important hormones are Gastrin, Cholecystokinin (CCK), Secretin, Somatostatin, and Motilin.


Gastrin is peptide hormone produced by G cells (flask shaped cells), from the antrum of the stomach.  Also found in duodenum and jejunum.

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When scientists are looking for presence of water in some other planets, we doctors are trying our best to know as much details as possible about our own body. Starting from the days when dead bodies were stolen from the graveyard so that they can learn about the anatomy of various organs, we have come a long way with the invention of sophisticated devices and techniques like X- ray, echo, ultrasound, CT- Scan, MRI and so on. With such advancement in medical science we are still lacking behind in exploring the treatment of many diseases and their pathogenesis.

Going through more than five years long journey to become a doctor with good concept is not that easy, there are failures and frustrations that provide the reason to leave the course in between. Being most expensive and sophisticated course, it is not uncommon to find medical students undergoing depression and committing suicide in their career. Apart of teaching medical subjects and medical ethics it is high time for the medical schools of the world to come up with some motivating and interactive session time and again to make the course more ease and effective.

When we enter medical school, we are already loaded with pressure from family, neighbour and on top of that monetary crisis. Repeating the definition 10- 20 -30 times may not be sufficient to make it perfect and knowing the definition may not be perfect unless you can present it among the audience.

There are several reason why medical students are more prone for depression, some of them are:

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MAGNESIUM: Unexplored Mineral

Most of us in our life encounter muscle spasm, back pain and various grades of musculoskeletal pain. We often suffer from number of pain related diseases especially during the old age due to derangement of number of minerals within the body.

There are number of minerals in our body and they have diverse role inside the body. Some people prefer taking carbohydrates, proteins and fats enough to make their diet complete but they fail to maintain sufficient vitamins and minerals to metabolize those food products. It is the food adulteration, less knowledge of way of cooking food and sedentary life style that is shifting the diseases pattern to a unusual paradigm.

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