Tag: DrBeen

Insult to liver on long run can cause fibrosis of the liver and formation of nodules ,which is termed as liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis is a chronic condition of the liver in which there is fibrosis and formation of nodules. The normal architecture of the liver gets distorted and patient presents with number of clinical feature.

Causes of Liver cirrhosis include:
1. Infection: Hepatitis B, C, D
2. Toxins: Alcohol
3. Cholestasis
4. Vascular
5. Metabolic
6. Genetic
7. Cryptogenic

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Diuretics forms one of the base pillars in treating hypertension and edema. These groups of drugs increases  rate of urine flow. Based on their mechanism of action their efficacy varies. Before moving into diuretics I would recommend to revise renal physiology which will make it easier to get deeper and clear concept of mechanism of diuretics. In this section I will not go into details of each and every diuretics, I would rather try to provide concept and differentiating feature based on mechanism of action and adverse effects.



Class of diuretics Example
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAI) WEAK Acetazolamide
Osmotic diuretics WEAK Mannitol
Loop diuretics HIGH Furosemide
Thiazide MEDIUM Hydrochlorothiazide
Potassium sparring diuretics WEAK

Amiloride (Sodium channel inhibitors)

Spironolactone (Aldosterone receptor antagonist)

Lets revise different section of nephron, (see the figure)

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There are different hormones related to gastrointestinal system which plays important role in digestion of the food. These hormones are related to each other and in different pathological condition, their production may increase or decrease leading to derangement of digestive process. Some important hormones are Gastrin, Cholecystokinin (CCK), Secretin, Somatostatin, and Motilin.


Gastrin is peptide hormone produced by G cells (flask shaped cells), from the antrum of the stomach.  Also found in duodenum and jejunum.

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MAGNESIUM: Unexplored Mineral

Most of us in our life encounter muscle spasm, back pain and various grades of musculoskeletal pain. We often suffer from number of pain related diseases especially during the old age due to derangement of number of minerals within the body.

There are number of minerals in our body and they have diverse role inside the body. Some people prefer taking carbohydrates, proteins and fats enough to make their diet complete but they fail to maintain sufficient vitamins and minerals to metabolize those food products. It is the food adulteration, less knowledge of way of cooking food and sedentary life style that is shifting the diseases pattern to a unusual paradigm.

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